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Digital Product Passport (DPP)


Digital Product Passports (DPP) aim to collect and share product data throughout its entire lifecycle, used to illustrate a product’s sustainability, environmental, and recyclability attributes. Recorded product data from across the supply chain including raw material sourcing and manufacturing process is captured on the DPP and shared amongst several stakeholders.

Although the concept of product tracking isn’t new, utilizing blockchain technology to record and secure product data through a Digital Product Passport is an emerging solution that is growing rapidly in business sector. The main goals of the DPP are to improve the circularity of products in terms of the R-Strategies and to foster transparency and traceability of products, materials, and components.

Solid requirements of DPP systems



Legal obligations

Functional suitability

Security, confidentiality, and IP protection


Modularity and modifiability




Ensure compliance with the government plans and laws.

* Need to fit the respective sector, industry, and use case
* Allow actors to make statements exclusively for the information for       
   which they are responsible
* Allow decentralized data storage locations for the DPP information
* Enable the decentralized collection of the information required for a           DPP.

* Ensure nonrepudiation
* Enable data verification
* Ensure data sovereignty
* Ensure secure data storage

* Provide clear semantics
* Standardize data schemas describing the products
* Provide an application interface (API) for data provision and data request

* Ensure flexibility to add/edit/remove actors, products, or product attributes.
* Ensure readiness for broader, international use.

* Allow the determination and implementation of access rules
* Ensure participation opportunities for actors who do not have their own     information system

* Ensure appropriate availability of the DPP information
   (depends on the use case)
* Enable real-time data if needed (depending on use case)

* Ensure that product identifiers and the DPP information are transferable     from one software system to another
* Avoid a centrally managed register for the product identifiers
* Ensure that product identifiers are referenceable and harmonizable     
   throughout the entire country.

A Digital Product Passport, which securely stores event, transactional, and sustainability-based data from throughout a product's lifespan, efficiently turns a real object into a digital twin. A QR code, barcode, or other technology, such as NFC tagging, is frequently used to link the digital twin to the real object. The Digital object Passport is typically accessible through a smart device application or something similar.

For example –

A rail wheel is manufactured and delivered to the customer with the quality assurance of about 5 years along with operating procedures and limitations. In this case, if the wheel was damaged within the specified time frame, it is simple for the manufacturer and the customer to track down information about the product's manufacturing, such as material compositions, batch numbers, and manufactured dates. They can also identify the root cause of the failure by scanning a QR code or other unique ID provided by the manufacturer, which directs them to the product's digital product passport. Also, what happens to the broken/damaged wheel, whether it is recycled/repaired? How much energy is utilized to manufacture/recycle/repair it? & How to recycle it etc., this forms a circular and sustainable model. Here, the data about the product is stored on a blockchain since it is unchangeable secured, transparent, decentralized & efficient.

D4C assists organisations in bringing,

• Accountability,
• Transparency,
• Sustainability,
• A reduction in carbon footprints

through the implementation of DPP, which benefits both the environment and humankind.


For manufacturer

For Consumers/End Users

• New business model
• Increase consumer trust
• Validate government subsidies 
• Customer protection
• Ensure compliance

• Buyer confidence
• Maximised product value
• Identify the harmfulness of the material used
• Recognise carbon footprint


The digital twin concept and Digital Product Passport technology is not limited solely to those markets such as textiles and batteries which are being directly targeted on a European Union level. This technology is open to all businesses, regardless of industry to experiment and utilise for long-term business and customer value. In terms of utility, the larger Digital Product Passport idea will develop over time, but in its present form, it is primarily being incorporated into projects related to sustainability, recycling, and the environment, all of which fall under the 'circular economy' banner.


[1] C. Stretton, "Digital product passports (DPP): what, how, and why?," Circularise, 20 04 2022. [Online]. Available:

[2] "All You Need To Know About the EU Digital Product Passports," PSQR, 27 JAN 2023. [Online]. Available:

[3] I. Tinsley, "Circularity and the future of the digital product passport," o9, 25 Jan 2023. [Online]. Available:

[4] "Digital Product Passport (DPP): A Complete Guide," Protokol, [Online]. Available:

[5] M. J. T. M. C. P. . H. B. . A. P. and . W. W., "Stop Guessing in the Dark: Identified Requirements for Digital product passport systems," MDPI, p. 11, 2023.

[6] J. W. A. S. and . M. M., "Digital Product Passports as Enabler of the Circular Economy," p. 11, 2021. [7] T. Adisorn, L. T. and T. G., "Towards a Digital Product Passport Fit for Contributing to a Circular Economy," MDPI, p. 16, 2021.

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